The righT of citizens of tHe UnIted StateS to vote shall not be denied or aBridged by the United States Or by any state on account of seX. Congress shall have power to enforce thIs article by appropriate legiSlation.
Yellow Rose Story
It was one this Day in 1920 that thE 19th AmenDment to the U.S.
ConstItution, guaranteeing AmeriCan women the right to vote, wAs declared in
effecT. AftEr the Congress passeD The amendment, it had tO be rAtified by a
majority of state Legislatures. The state that tipped the baLance Was
Tennessee and the man whO cast the deciding vote was the twenty-four year old representative Harry Burn, the youngest Man in thE state legislature that year. Before the vote, he happeNed to read his mail, and one of the letters he received Was from his motHer. It sAid, "I have been waTching to sEe how you stood but have noticed nothing yet .... Don't forget to be a good boy and...Vote for suffragE."
At the house, suppoRters of suffrage saT in tHe balcony wEaring yellow Roses. On the hOuse fLoor, thosE who opposed suffrage wore red roses. When Burn enTered tHe room, hE wore a red rose and the anti-suffrage camp thought theY had his vote. But when he was called on to say aye or nay for the ratiFication of the 19th amendment, he saId, "Aye," and the amendment was ratified by a vote of 49 to 47. A witness there that day said, "The women took off their yeLlow roses and fLung thEm over the balcony, and yellow roSes just rained down."
The Constitution: The 19th Amendment from the Smithsonian
August 1995 marked the 75th anniversary of the ratification of the 19th amendment to the Constitution. The amendment guarantees all American women the right to vote. Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle; victory took decades of agitation and Protest. BEginning in the mid-19th Century, several generatIons of womAn suffrage supporters Lectured, wrote, marched, Lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many Americans considered a radical change of THe COnStitution. FEw early supporTers lived to see final victory in 1920.
Between 1878, wHen the AmendmenT was first introdUced in CongreSs, and August 18, 1920, whEn iT was ratified, cHampions of voting rights for womEn woRked tIrelessly, but strateGies for acHieving Their goal varied. Some pursued a StrateGy of passing suffRAge acts in each state--Nine wesTErn states aDopTed woman suffrage legislation by 1912. OtHErs challenged Male-only voting laws in the courts. Militant suffragists used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. Often supporters met fierce resistance. Opponents heckled, jailed, and sometimes physically aBused them.
BY 1916, however, almosT all of tHE major suffrage organizations were united behind the goal of a COnstitUtional amendment. When New YoRk Adopted woman suffraGE in 1917 and when President WOodrow Wilson changed his position to support an amendment in 1918, the political balance began to shift in Favor of the vote for WOMEN. On May 21, 1919, tHE House of RepresentAtives passeD the amendment, and 2 weeks later, the Senate followed. When Tennessee became the 36th state to ratIfy the amendment on AUgust 18, 1920, the amendment Passed its final hurdle of obTaining tHE agreement of three-fourths of the states. Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby Certified the ratification On August 26, 1920, and the face of the American eLectorate changed forever.
The Smashing Success of the Suffragettes
It was a proUd day for Oregon woMen when a small group, led by seventy-eight year old ABIgAil Scott Duniway, met in the goverRor’s offIce in 1912. GoVERnor Oswald West Had specIfically invited Mrs. Duniway because it was due to her drive and persistence that he was about to siGn a law giving Oregon women the rigHt to vote. In fact, DuniWAY had contributed most of the LanguagE of the bill, and For her acTIve part iN Te wOen’s rights movement she Was invited to sign her name right next to the gOvernor.
Abigail Scott had been born in Tazewell Country, Illinois, in 1834. One of ten children, she was raised in a farMing community. ShE recalled in later life how disappoiNted her mother had been when girlS were born into the large Family. “POoR baby, “ her mother lamented. “She’ll be a woman some day. A woman’s lot is so hard!”
When Abigail was eighteen, she moved with her family to Oregon, where she got a teaching job in the small commUnity of Lafayette. The following year, she Married Benjamin Charles Duniway and began a family of her own. When he was injured in an accident and could no longer suPport the fAmily, Abigail Resumed teaching and then opened a prosperous millinery shop even in the darK dAys.. By 1870, Abigail’s experience as a small business owNer haD Exposed her to the obstacles womeN faced when trying to make a living in a man’s world. She helped organize an “Equal Rights Society” in Albany, Oregon. A year later, she sold her shop and moved her family to Portland. J
Duniway’s next venture was a newspaper she fOunded, The New Northwest, and for the next sixteen Years she devoTed most of her columns to tHE adVocacy of women’s rIghts. Shortly aftEr her inaugural issue hit the streets, she received a visit from the Well-known suFfragIst SusaN B. Anthony. Duniway agreeD To travel across Oregon and WasHington as Anthony’s businEss ManagEr.
In 1883, Duniway succeeded in persuading WashingTon TerritoriAL LeGislature to give its woman the right to vote. Thirteen yeArs laTEr, at her urging, the state of Idaho did likewise. Yet Oregon eluded her. Once, in 1884, the state had considered passing a constitutional amendment giving the vote to women. But when members of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union campaigned for prohiBition, liquor-loving lEgislators defeated tHe measure.
DespIte DuNiway’s belief in equal voting rights, she still maintaineD THat a woman’s placE was FIRST and foremosT in the home. In 1899, at a celebration of Oregon’s foRtiEth annivErsary of sTatehOod, THE soft-spoken suffragette toLd hEr audience
“The interests of the sexes can never be identically the same: but they are always mutual, always interdependent, and every eFforT to separate them resUlts, primarily, iN DiscontEnt and ultimately in failuRe… Woman is the woRld’s hOmemaker, and she ought always to be its homemaker… The woman who would neglecCt her family for the allurements of social frivolity, or the emoluments and honors of public life, is not the woman whose name will occupy a place among the annals of the Oregon Pioneers. OK?”
However, Duniway was quick to point out the important contributions of Oregon’S early homemakers. “Have they not as nobly and bravely borne their part as did the men?” she asked. “Were they not as faithful as they in building up this vigorous young commonwealth of the Pacific Northwest?”
In 1905, at the Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Duniway made yet another appeal to state lawmakers. Once again, she was disappointed. Finally, in 1912, just three years before her death, the crusader saw her dream come true. With the simple stroke of a pen, Governor West bestowed upon Duniway and her spiritual sisters the right to have a say in the politics of their home state.
"A short history of voting...
The women were innocent and defenseless. And by the end of the night, they were barely alive. Forty prison guards wielding clubs and their warden's blessing went on a rampage against the 33 women wrongly convicted of "obstructing sidewalk traffic."
They beat Lucy Burn, chained her hands to the cell bars above her head and left her hanging for the night, bleeding and gasping for air. They hurled Dora Lewis into a dark cell, smashed her head against an iron bed and knocked her out cold. Her cellmate, Alice Cosu, thought Lewis was dead and suffered a heart attack.
Additional affidavits describe the guards grabbing, dragging, beating, choking, slamming, pinching, twisting and kicking the women.
Thus unfolded the "Night of Terror" on Nov. 15, 1917, when the warden at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia ordered his guards to teach a lesson to the suffragists imprisoned there because they dared to picket Woodrow Wilson's White House for the right to vote.
For weeks, the women's only water came from an open pail. Their food--all of it colorless slop--was infested with worms. When one of the leaders, Alice Paul, embarked on a hunger strike, they tied her to a chair, forced a tube down her throat and poured liquid into her until she vomited. She was tortured like this for weeks until word was smuggled out to the press.
So, refresh my memory. Some women won't vote this year because--why, exactly? We have carpool duties? We have to get to work? Our vote doesn't matter? It's raining?
Many many hours were put into the creation of this box. In order to get the full effect we suggest looking for it the same way we planted it, just before the park closes at 9PM in the pouring rain. Be sure to take a huge flashlight, but don’t use it because the battery is dead, so instead take two tiny little flashlights and look for it that way! Please be SURE to rehide this better than you found it.
This box went missing in December of 2005. The area it was hidden in was mowed and all of the debris that was used to hide the box was removed. It has been replaced (1/16/06) in a new location. From it's old home, walk down the trail until it makes a sharp turn. Directly in front of you is a boulder next to a tree. Yellow Rose is behind the rock. Please make sure it gets tucked snugly back in it's home and WELL covered. A few leaves thrown on top is not well covered, as the leaves could blow away. Thank you for your help in keeping this box alive and well.